TL;DR

On with TASK #2 from The Weekly Challenge #211. Enjoy!

# The challenge

You are given an array of integers.

Write a script to find out if the given can be split into two separate arrays whose average are the same.

Example 1:

Input: @nums = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)
Output: true

We can split the given array into (1, 4, 5, 8) and (2, 3, 6, 7).
The average of the two arrays are the same i.e. 4.5.


Example 2:

Input: @list = (1, 3)
Output: false


# The questions

One first question is probably how big the input array will be? Depending on the answer, as we will see, we might just go with a brute force exponential approach, or try to find out something more sophisticated.

Another interesting question would be a confirmation on the domain, and in particular a confirmation that those integers might be negative as well. I hope my fellow challengers will not be tripped by this fact (I was about to be).

Last, I’d ask whether the inputs have a bound or not. This would not be a problem per-se in Raku, but in Perl I’m still relying on what the language gives me out of the box, so it would be wise to figure out if big integers would be needed (expecially for my case, because I’m going to translate inputs to only deal with non-negative values).

# The solution

When I address these challenges, I usually start with coding the solutions (strictly as Raku then Perl for the first task, Perl then Raku for the second one, because they’re both lovely), then move on to the blog post, first copying the challenge, then writing out some questions I gathered on the way, then describing the solution in this very section.

This time… I start here.

The most basic and obvious algorithm is a brute force attempt with a disastrous $O(2^n)$ complexity. What’s that, and why this complexity? Well, we can consider any possible subset out of the $n$ input integers, then calculate the average on those elements and on what’s left over, compare and declare success or move on to the next subset. As any element can, or can not, be in this subset, it’s like having a yes/no flag behind each element, i.e. a string of $n$ bits that we can play with.

OK, we have a base line, at least.

## Let’s meet in the middle

One observation that can be immediately done is that if we go through all subsets with $k$ elements inside, at the very same time we’re covering all subsets with $n - k$ elements too. This means that it’s sufficient to go up to $\lfloor n / 2 \rfloor$, i.e. that the real complexity is $O(2^{\lfloor n/2 \rfloor})$.

It’s still exponential, but at least we have doubled our inputs!

## Calculating averages

We can observe that if the average over the two subsets are the same, surely this can tell us something about the average over the whole lot, right? It turns out that it actually does.

Let’s assume that we have such a partition, where the first subset holds $u$ elements ${a_1, a_2, …, a_u}$ and the second subset holds $v$ elements ${b_1, b_2, …, b_v}$. Then we have:

$\frac{1}{u}\sum_{i=1}^u a_i = \frac{1}{v}\sum_{j=1}^v b_j$

For sake of simplicity, let’s set names:

$A = \sum_{i=1}^u a_i \\ B = \sum_{j=1}^v b_j$

so that our initial relation is written simply as:

$\frac{A}{u} = \frac{B}{v}$

Solving for $B$ we get:

$B = \frac{v}{u} A$

The average over all elements is expressed like this:

$\frac{1}{u + v} (\sum_{i=1}^u a_i + \sum_{j=1}^v b_j) = \frac{A + B}{u + v}$

Substituting $B$ we get:

\begin{align} \frac{A + B}{u + v} & = \frac{1}{u + v} (A + \frac{v}{u} A) \\ & = \frac{1}{u + v}(1 + \frac{v}{u}) A \\ & = \frac{1}{u + v}\frac{u + v}{u} A \\ & = \frac{A}{u} \\ & = \frac{B}{v} \end{align}

that is, the three averages are the same as one another.

This means that instead of calculating the averages over the two subsets for each candidate, we can calculate the reference average over all elements once at the beginning, and then the average over one single subset only. Assuming that the “big thing” is calculating the average (still a linear operation at the basic level), we have halved our search effort.

## Integer constraint

There’s still something to extract from the challenge constraints, i.e. the fact that the inputs are all integers.

Let’s take the first example:

Input: @nums = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)


The average over all elements is $4.5$.

If we consider any subset of $k$ elements, the subset is a good one if their sum is $4.5 k$. This implies that $k$ can only be even, otherwise the sum would not be integer.

This can be generalized: if the average has a reduced form:

$M = \frac{p}{q}$

with $p$ and $q$ co-primes, then a good candidate subset can only have a number $k$ of elements that is also divisible by $q$, so that:

$S_k = k \frac{p}{q}$

is integer.

Alas, this does not help in the worst case where the average itself is an integer number (i.e. $q = 1$), but still gives a big improvement in the general case, as we can focus on subsets whose cardinality is a multiple of $q$.

It would be interesting to calculate the probability of having an integer average out of a random draw of integers.

The integer constraint and our observation also helps moving the focus from finding the right average $M$ to finding the right sum $S_k$. This is actually solving a variant of the knapsack problem (with a specific target and a constraint on the number of elements), for which we can hope to find something that can help.

I’ll call this a day, though, and not look further into it.

## Solution (really!)

Let’s go Perl first. Checking for a feasible set leverages some caching to keep track of past failures and not go through all the calculations over and over (hopefully).

Another twist in the implementation is that the test is performed on a transformed array, shifted so that all elements are non-negative. This is an invariant, but then helps better pruning the search because it allows making some assumptions in $has_subset (in particular, failing if $sum turned negative).

#!/usr/bin/env perl
use v5.24;
use warnings;
use experimental 'signatures';

my @args = @ARGV ? @ARGV : 1 .. 8;
say split_same_average(@args) ? 'true' : 'false';

sub split_same_average (@list) {

# pre-massage the list to only cope with non-negative integers
(my $min, @list) = sort {$a <=> $b } @list; my @partial_sums = (0); push @partial_sums,$partial_sums[-1] + ($list[$_] -= $min) for 0 ..$#list;
unshift @list, 0; # put "min" back

my %cache;
my $has_subset = sub ($sum, $k,$i = $#list) { return 1 if ($sum == 0) && ($k == 0); # found! return 0 if ($sum < 0)                 # removed more than needed
|| ($i < 0) # nothing more to look at || ($sum > $partial_sums[$i]) # cannot remove as much as needed
;

# caching on subset size $k and end cursor position$i only, the $sum # is a consequence of$k
return $cache{$k}{$i} //= __SUB__->($sum - $list[$i], $k - 1,$i - 1) # try greedy first
|| __SUB__->($sum,$k, $i - 1); # fallback }; # calculate p and q (average for modified list is p/q) my$n = @list;
my $sum =$partial_sums[-1];
my $gcd = gcd($sum, $n); my ($p, $q) = ($sum / $gcd,$n / $gcd); # iterate finding subsets of multiples of q, starting at q itself my$k = $q; while ($k <= $n / 2) { my$S = $p *$k / $q; # target sum return 1 if$has_subset->($S,$k);
$k +=$q;
}

# nothing found, fail
return 0;
}

sub gcd ($A,$B) { ($A,$B) = ($B %$A, $A) while$A; return $B }  The Raku alternative is a pretty straight translation. I hope lazyness is still one of the three virtues of a programmer these days. #!/usr/bin/env raku use v6; sub MAIN (*@args) { @args = 1 .. 8 unless @args; put split-same-average(@args); } sub split-same-average (@list) { (my$min, @list) = @list.sort.Slip;
my @partial-sums = 0;
@partial-sums.push: @partial-sums[*-1] + (@list[$_] -=$min) for ^@list;
@list.unshift: 0; # put "min" back

my %cache;
sub has_subset ($sum,$k, $i = @list.end) { return True if ($sum == 0) && ($k == 0); return False if ($sum < 0)                 # removed more than needed
|| ($i < 0) # nothing more to look at || ($sum > @partial-sums[$i]) # cannot remove as much as needed ; # caching on subset size$k and end cursor position $i only, the$sum
# is a consequence of $k return %cache{$k}{$i} //= samewith($sum - @list[$i],$k - 1, $i - 1) || samewith($sum, $k,$i - 1);
}

# calculate p and q (average for modified list is p/q)
my $n = @list.elems; my$sum = @partial-sums[*-1];
my $gcd = gcd($sum, $n); my ($p, $q) =$sum div $gcd,$n div $gcd; # iterate finding subsets of multiples of q, starting at q itself my$k = $q; while$k <= $n div 2 { my$S = $p *$k / $q; # target sum return True if has_subset($S, $k);$k += $q; } # nothing found, fail return False; } sub gcd ($A is copy, $B is copy) { ($A, $B) = ($B % $A,$A) while $A;$B }


Have fun and stay safe!

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